【中國古代發明】記中醫藥文化發展軌跡 一

前言:

       

       中國是醫藥文化發祥最早的國家之一,從文明的曙光在天幕上耀映亞細亞大地之時,遍及神州大地的簇簇史前文化篝火,由點到面聯接起來,形成燎原之勢,逐漸的融化在文明時代的光華之中。從此,中國醫藥學的文明史開始了。

       中國五千年的有文字可考醫學史,由于東方文化發展的特色形成的中國獨特理論框架,及近現代西方科學的撞擊及西醫的傳入,出現兩個分明的層次,在東西方醫學交匯中呈現復雜多態的狀態。在中國傳統醫學中,漢族醫學的歷史最悠久,實踐經驗和理論認識最為豐富。

       中醫發源于中國黃河流域,很早就建立了學術體系。中醫在漫長的發展過程中,歷代都有不同的創造,涌現了許多名醫,出現了許多重要學派和名著。中國歷史上有"神農嘗百草……一日而遇七十毒"的傳說,反映了古代勞動人民在與自然和疾病作斗爭的過程中發現藥物、積累經驗的艱苦過程,也是中藥起源于生產勞動的真實寫照。

       早在夏商周時期(約公元前22世紀末--前256年),中國就已出現藥酒及湯液。西周(約公元前11世紀--前771年)的《詩經》是中國現存文獻中最早記載有藥物的書籍。現存最早的中醫理論典籍《內經》提出了"寒者熱之,熱者寒之","五味所入","五臟苦欲補瀉"等學說,為中藥基本理論奠定了基礎。

       現存最早的藥學專著《神農本草經》是秦漢時期(公元前221--公元220年)眾多醫學家搜集、總結了先秦以來豐富藥學資料而成書的。本書載藥365種,至今尚為臨床所習用。它的問世,標志著中藥學的初步確立。

       在3000多年前的殷商甲骨文中,中國已經有關于醫療衛生以及十多種疾病的記載。周代已經使用望、聞、問、切等診病方法和藥物、針灸、手術等治療方法。秦漢時期,形成了《黃帝內經》這樣具有系統理論的著作。此書是現存最早的一部中醫理論性經典著作。張仲景所著的《傷寒雜病論》,專門論述了多種雜病的辨證診斷、治療原則,為后世的臨床醫學奠定了發展的基礎。漢代外科學已具有較高水平。據《三國志》記載,名醫華佗已開始使用全身麻醉劑"麻沸散"進行各種外科手術。

歷史發展沿革:

       從魏晉南北朝(公元220--589年)到隋唐五代(公元581--960年),脈診取得了突出的成就。晉代名醫王叔和所著的《脈經》歸納了24種脈象。該書不僅對中國醫學有很大影響,而且還傳到了國外。這一時期醫學各科的專科化已趨成熟。針灸專著有《針灸甲乙經》;《抱樸子》和《肘后方》是煉丹的代表著作;制藥方面有《雷公炮炙論》;外科有《劉涓子鬼遺方》;《諸病源候論》是病因專著,《顱囟經》是兒科專著;《新修本草》是世界上第一部藥典;眼科專著有《銀海精微》等等。另外,唐代還有孫思邈的《千金要方》和王燾的《外臺秘要》等大型方書。

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